North Eastern Europe means the north situated part of Eastern Europe. However, there is no agreement on whether Northeast Europe should be viewed as an independent part of Eastern Europe.
The states of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Russian exclave Kaliningrad (i.e. the Baltic region) and the northern part of the rest of European Russia are counted as part of north-eastern Europe. The northern regions of European Russia include northwestern Russia and the Moscow area.
Northeastern Europe was shaped by Finno-Ugric and Baltic tribes since pre-Christian times; Slavs were only added in late antiquity, especially Eastern Slavs, Scandinavians in the early Middle Ages and Germans since the High Middle Ages.
Historically, this was a border area between the spheres of influence of various German powers (the Teutonic Order, the Hanseatic League (with the Hanseatic cities of Reval (now Tallinn) and Riga), later Prussia and the German Empire), Poland-Lithuania, the Kingdom of Sweden (until the 18th Century), and Russia (as Grand Duchy of Moscow, then Tsarist Empire, later as the Soviet Union) and was often fought over (including the Lithuanian Wars of the Teutonic Order, Great Northern War, First World War, Estonian War of Independence, Latvian War of Independence, Polish-Lithuanian War, Polish Soviet War, World War II).
As a legacy of the Soviet era, Russian is the dominant lingua franca in Northeastern Europe today, although it remains very important in the Baltic States due to the Russian minorities. In north-west Russia, however, there are still diverse, mainly Finno-Ugric minorities.
Countries in Northeastern Europe