Definition of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the name given to the eastern part of Europe that is adjacent to Central Europe. A more specific definition of the term Eastern Europe depends on the context in which this term is used:
- In a geographical sense, Eastern Europe includes Ukraine, the European part of Russia, Belarus (Belarus) and sometimes Moldova (Moldova). However, a large part of Eastern Europe is north of Central Europe, cities such as Saint Petersburg, Novgorod and Murmansk are further north than many Scandinavian cities. Northwest Russia was mostly included in Northern Europe until the middle of the 19th century. The most geographically correct term for this area is Northeastern Europe. The defining form of the landscape in Eastern Europe is the huge Eastern European plain, which includes extends to the Ural Mountains and Ural River, which separate Eastern Europe from Asia, and meets the icy Arctic Ocean in the north.
- In the historical sense, Eastern Europe refers to Ukraine, the European part of Russia, Belarus and Moldova. The Caucasian countries Georgia, Armenia and, to a certain extent, Azerbaijan are also often seen as part of Eastern Europe. The Eastern European countries are historically and culturally largely shaped by the Orthodox Church (with the exception of Islamic Azerbaijan) and – in contrast to the Ottoman-ruled Balkans – were under the rule of the Russian Empire. The countries of Eastern Europe had no or only a limited share in the social developments of the Renaissance, Reformation and Enlightenment.
- In the ethnic, linguistic and cultural sense, Eastern Europe refers to the part of Europe inhabited by the Slavic peoples. However, this simplified classification is criticized by some, since the eastern part of Germany was also settled by Slavs for a long time (and in some cases it is still Sorbs today). Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia as non-Slavic countries would (also) not be assigned to the Eastern European area in this case.
- In a political sense, Eastern Europe referred to the European Eastern Bloc states during the Cold War. Eastern Europe is the name given to the eastern part of Europe that is adjacent to Central Europe. A more specific definition of the term Eastern Europe depends on the context in which this term is used:
- The Eastern European and Central Eastern European countries are often considered together for political reasons. In EU jargon, the abbreviation for this is CEEC.
- In the statistical sense of the United Nations, Eastern Europe includes: Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Belarus.
- In the linguistic and geographical sense of the United Nations, the Department for Eastern Europe, North and Central Asia comprises the following countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Belarus.
Countries in Eastern Europe
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic